DRSABCD action plan

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DRSABCD action plan is an acronym for the most basic of actions that an individual should do in the event of there being an Emergency.This is DANGER,RESPONSE,SEND for help,AIRWAY,BREATHING,CPR,DEFIBRILLATION

D for Danger

Check the scene of the incident and survey for any danger to yourself, bystanders and the casualty. Dangers include environmental hazards, hygiene protection, bystanders in distress, fire, gas, electricity and other workplace hazards. If no danger is present, approach the casualty and send someone for a first aid kit.

R for Response

Check for the casualty's' response by using the touch and talk method. Speak loudly, squeeze the casualty's hand and ask questions for a response. Mumbling, movement, speech, reflex or response to stimulation is considered a sign of life.

S for Send for Help

If there is no response and the casualty is not conscious, call for an ambulance immediately. It is important that the ambulance service is contacted to ensure a prompt response to the casualty to provide advanced medical care. The first aider should send a bystander or using load speaker on a mobile phone ring the kenyan emergency numbers from some mobile phones and provide information the ambulance service requires that include the following:-

  • Police, Ambulance or Fire
  • Town and County you are located in
  • Closest cross street or land mark
  • Your name and contact information
  • Nature of your call (state injuries of the casualty)
  • The ambulance service will ask for the person calling to main on the phone until the ambulance officers arrive.

A for Airway

If the casualty is unconscious, an obstructed airway can cause complications to breathing. Look inside the casualty's mouth for any foreign objects or fluid. If you need to clear the airway, roll the casualty onto their side (known as the recovery or lateral position) and with gloves on, use your fingers to remove the object or fluids. When clear proceed to the next step.In aquatic drowning situations, the casualty should be rolled onto their side immediately to assist in the drainage of fluids.The most common cause of an airway obstruction in the unconscious casualty is the tongue.

B for Breathing

Look, listen and feel for 10 seconds looking for any normal breathing being 2 -3 breaths. If there is no normal breathing then start CPR.Wind, traffic, bystanders and other environmental circumstances may make it difficult to hear or feel any breathing, therefore ensure that the rescuer has performed a thorough breathing check by placing their cheek next to the airways and feels the diaphragm area for movement.

C for Compressions,CPR,

Now that you know the casualty is showing no signs of normal breathing, being that they are unconscious, and not breathing normally being 2 -3 breaths in 10 seconds, CPR is commenced.30 compressions are delivered to the centre of the chest, followed by two rescue breaths. This process (30 to 2) is continued until the casualty recovers, assistance arrives to take over, if you can no longer physically continue or if danger presents itself to the rescuer. This is the only time CPR should be stopped.

D for Defibrillation

Defibrillation is the treatment for life threatening cardiac arrest. If available, apply an Automatic External Defibrillator (AED) to the casualty, turn on and follow the voice prompts. The use of defibrillation (AED) in an emergency could be the difference between life and death for a casualty suffering a sudden cardiac arrest.


Defibrillators today are available to the public and for the workplace. They are known as Automatic External Defibrillators - AED.When the defibrillator is turned on it will guide the operator through the steps of defibrillation by using clear, calm voice prompts.The defibrillator comes equipped with adhesive pads that are applied to the chest of a patient suffering a SCA. Once the signal is received between the two pads on the chest the defibrillator will analyse the heart rhythm to determine if an electric shock can be delivered.If a shock to the heart is required the defibrillator will instruct you to press the flashing button.

Indicators for use of defibrillation on a patient

  • An unconscious patient – not breathing
  • Availability of an AED
  • A qualified operator in the workplace
  • A safe environment

Contraindications for use of defibrillation on a patient

  • A conscious patient
  • An untrained operator in the workplace
  • Potentially explosive atmospheres – oxygen equipment, fuel, gas
  • Water around the victim
  • Consent was not given by previously conscious patient
  • The casualty is a child with a body weight of less than 50 kgs.



Posted: January 08, 2014

Author: Kevin

Category: Blog